Hardware can be seen and touched - it is tangible.
Hardware is useless without software.
Registers are storage areas IN the CPU.
. WHERE do programs execute?
A computer is a machine that can be ______ to take in _______ and output ________.
Electronic computers were first created in the ______'s around the time of _______II.
Why were they invented?
Why are they important now? Are they smart?
THE characteristic that makes computers so good at what they do is __________.
How do we make computers do what we want?
Computers are comprised of both _____ (tangible) & _____ (intangible)
The ONLY language that a computer understands is __________.
Data vs. Information (what's the DIFFERENCE?)
5 Main Hardware Components
CPU - what does it do? how fast does it do it?
who makes these? example of one?
IR / IP
EAX / AX / AH / AL
steps of instruction execution?
CU / ALU?
RAM - what does it do? how is it organized?
what IS a byte? how much RAM is there?
how is cache related to RAM? how are things represented in RAM?
SS - what does it do? why is it needed? how is SS different from RAM?
what kinds of SS are there? how big is SS?
I/O - what does I/O do? how does it work?
how do you get pictures / music into / out of a computer?
BUS - interconnecton between components
Explain how these work together to execute a program!
Computer is a machine that can be programmed to accept data and
transform it into useful information.
. HOW do programs execute?
User enters a command (interpreted by?)
____ goes and gets program from ??
Puts program where? Puts address of first instruction where? (CONTEXT SWITCH)
Program execution begins:
While program not done
Execute Instruction (Single instruction execution takes how long?)
Fetch instruction from ____ and put into ____
Decode and update ___ to point to next instruction
Return control to OS
. How are things represented inside a computer?
There are 10 kinds of people in the world: those that
understand binary and those that do not...
What is a positional numbering system? Ever use one?
How many license plates...?
Encoding in Binary
What is binary and ... WHY did they do this to us??
The following table shows how you can express the same abstract
concept, a number, in base 2 and in base 10. (See reference
|binary (base 2)
||decimal (base 10)
|10 (2^1) ||2|
|100 (2^2) ||4|
|1000 (2^3) ||8|
|1010 ||10 (10^1)|
|10000 (2^4) ||16|
Representation of Numbers, Characters and Instructions
Unsigned binary: Number 3 is encoded as ?
Signed binary: Encodes negative numbers
Floating Point: sign, power, mantissa
ASCII (See reference
"A" is encoded as 1000001 (66th character)
The character "3" is encoded as 0011 0011
Unicode (65536 characters) - 2 bytes per char
Organization: Byte is basic unit of storage in a computer
What is a byte? bit? megabyte?
Collections of Bytes (See reference
||2^10 = 1,024
||2^20 = 1,048,576
||2^30 = 1,073,741,824
||2^40 = 1,099,511,627,776
||2^50 = 1,125,899,906,842,624
||2^60 = 1,152,921,504,606,846,976
||2^70 = 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424
||2^80 = 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176
Hexadecimal: What is THIS?
4 binary digits = ??
0000 : 0 1000 : 8
0001 : 1 1001 : 9
0010 : 2 1010 : A
0011 : 3 1011 : B
0100 : 4 1100 : C
0101 : 5 1101 : D
0110 : 6 1110 : E
0111 : 7 1111 : F
BIG QUESTION: What is the ONLY language a computer understands?
BIGGER QUESTION: How do we tell what ANYTHING is?? It's all just 1's and 0's!
Math is an important part of Computer Science!!
.. But we need SOFTWARE (so we write programs...)!