hardware

hw

Hardware can be seen and touched - it is tangible. Hardware is useless without software.





Registers are storage areas IN the CPU.

. WHERE do programs execute?
A computer is a machine that can be ______ to take in _______ and output ________. Electronic computers were first created in the ______'s around the time of _______II. Why were they invented?
Why are they important now? Are they smart?
THE characteristic that makes computers so good at what they do is __________.
How do we make computers do what we want?
Computers are comprised of both _____ (tangible) & _____ (intangible)
The ONLY language that a computer understands is __________.
Data vs. Information (what's the DIFFERENCE?)

5 Main Hardware Components

CPU - what does it do? how fast does it do it? who makes these? example of one? registers IR / IP EAX / AX / AH / AL B,C,D steps of instruction execution? CU / ALU?
RAM - what does it do? how is it organized? what IS a byte? how much RAM is there? how is cache related to RAM? how are things represented in RAM?
SS - what does it do? why is it needed? how is SS different from RAM? what kinds of SS are there? how big is SS?
I/O - what does I/O do? how does it work? how do you get pictures / music into / out of a computer?
BUS - interconnecton between components
Explain how these work together to execute a program!
Computer is a machine that can be programmed to accept data and transform it into useful information.

. HOW do programs execute?
User enters a command (interpreted by?)
____ goes and gets program from ??
Puts program where? Puts address of first instruction where? (CONTEXT SWITCH)
Program execution begins:
While program not done
    Execute Instruction (Single instruction execution takes how long?)
    Fetch instruction from ____ and put into ____
    Decode and update ___ to point to next instruction
    Execute
Return control to OS

. How are things represented inside a computer?
There are 10 kinds of people in the world: those that understand binary and those that do not...
What is a positional numbering system? Ever use one?
How many license plates...?

Encoding in Binary

What is binary and ... WHY did they do this to us?? The following table shows how you can express the same abstract concept, a number, in base 2 and in base 10. (See reference)
binary (base 2) decimal (base 10)
0 0
1 1
10 (2^1) 2
11 3
100 (2^2) 4
101 5
110 6
111 7
1000 (2^3) 8
1001 9
1010 10 (10^1)
1011 11
1100 12
1101 13
1110 14
1111 15
10000 (2^4) 16
binary decimal

Representation of Numbers, Characters and Instructions

Unsigned binary: Number 3 is encoded as ? Signed binary: Encodes negative numbers Floating Point: sign, power, mantissa Instruction Codes ASCII (See reference)

"A" is encoded as 1000001 (66th character) The character "3" is encoded as 0011 0011 Unicode (65536 characters) - 2 bytes per char

Organization: Byte is basic unit of storage in a computer

What is a byte? bit? megabyte?
Collections of Bytes (See reference)
Name
Abbr.
Size
Kilo
K
2^10 = 1,024
Mega
M
2^20 = 1,048,576
Giga
G
2^30 = 1,073,741,824
Tera
T
2^40 = 1,099,511,627,776
Peta
P
2^50 = 1,125,899,906,842,624
Exa
E
2^60 = 1,152,921,504,606,846,976
Zetta
Z
2^70 = 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424
Yotta
Y
2^80 = 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176

Hexadecimal: What is THIS?
Shorthand...

4 binary digits = ?? 0000 : 0 1000 : 8 0001 : 1 1001 : 9 0010 : 2 1010 : A 0011 : 3 1011 : B 0100 : 4 1100 : C 0101 : 5 1101 : D 0110 : 6 1110 : E 0111 : 7 1111 : F Context BIG QUESTION: What is the ONLY language a computer understands?
BIGGER QUESTION: How do we tell what ANYTHING is?? It's all just 1's and 0's! Math is an important part of Computer Science!!

.. But we need SOFTWARE (so we write programs...)!
Computer instructions binary HOL syntax compiler